About Ledzokuku Krowor Municipal Assembly


1.3.1 Physical and Natural Environment
Boundary and Administrative Area
The total land area of LEKMA is estimated at 50 square kilometers. The municipality is bounded to the south by the Gulf of Guinea (from the Kpeshie Lagoon to the Sakumono Junction). It continues along the railway line through Sakumono to the ‘on the run’ traffic light. It is bounded to the East by the Spintex Road towards the Coca Cola Roundabout. This turns to the left and right by Johnson Wax. To the north of the boundary is the Motorway through to the Tetteh Quarshie Interchange and moves south along the boundaries of the Ashitey Akomfra Electoral area and towards the estuary of the Kpeshie lagoon.

Figure 1: Map of LEKMA

The map shows that the municipality is wedged between the Accra Metropolitan Assembly on the west and Tema Metropolitan Assembly on the East. In view of the strategic location of the Municipality, as indicated in the map, between the national capital, Accra and Tema, the second largest city in the Greater Accra Region, LEKMA is well placed to attract large investment concerns for its economic development due to the prevailing economic climate in the region.

The Municipality is also located in the flood plain of three rivers flowing from the Akawpim Mountains
By its location between Tema and Accra there is a high probability that it would be under the influence of policies of these adjoining districts as well as the high impact on population movement .
Having a large stretch of coast line fishing and its related activities is the major occupation in the Municipality and tourism potential cannot be ruled out
There is the possibility that the Municipality could provide the much needed residential accommodation for workers in the national capital and the port city of Tema


LEKMA lies in the Savannah zone which experiences a double maxima rainy season pattern. The average annual rainfall is about 730mm, which falls primarily during the two rainy seasons. The first season begins in May and ends in mid-July while the second season begins in mid-August and ends in October. Rainfall is usually characterized by quick and short intensive storms and causes flooding in areas of poor drainage. This situation is further aggravated by the effects of climate change where the rain fall pattern has become unpredictable and its impact on flood management.

Wind speeds are sometimes exceptional strong and roof rip offs are very predominantly in the district
The annual temperature figures are also relatively stable with very little variation in annual temperature figures. August, the coolest month, usually comes with a mean temperature of 24.7°c while the hottest period is found in March with a mean of 28°c. With an annual average of 26.8°c in temperature and the proximity of the area to the equator, the daylight hours are practically uniform during the year. Relative humidity in the area is generally high varying from 65% in the mid-afternoon to 95% at night. The differentials in temperatures identified should inform architectural designs of buildings to ensure convenience in building designs.


The vegetation of the municipality was believed to have been covered by dense forest but currently only a few remnant trees have survived due to a multiplicity of factors relating to rapid urbanization and limited enforcement of laws protecting the terrestrial vegetation. The situation is further worsened by the effect of climate change. The three key vegetation zones are made up of shrub lands, grassland and coastal lands. This support only limited rearing of livestock. The grasses comprise a combination of species found in the undergrowth of forests which are usually short, and rarely grow beyond one meters. There is however a small green belt near the Teshie Coastal area which is seriously under threat of encroachment and this calls for very proactive measures to protect such areas not only to conserve coastal ecosystems but also to enhance the tourism potentials in such areas.

Heat is a very common phenomenon in the Municipality and temperature variations is an issue that needs to be considered

Part of Green Belt                                     Encroahment of Part of Green Belt

1.3.2 Culture
The Origin of the Indigenous People

The indigenous people of the Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipality are a section of the Ga-speaking people of Ghana who essentially occupy the stretch from Nyanyano in the west of the Accra Metropolis to Kpone in the East of Tema along the coast of Ghana. On the south of this area is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by Akwapin Stool Lands. Through oral tradition we are informed that the Ga-speaking people made up of the people of Ga Mashie, Osu, La, Teshie, Nungua and Tema migrated originally from Israel and passed through many lands including Nigeria and Togo before finally settling in Ghana. They also came in various groups and arrived on the shores of this land at different times.

The Homowo Festival
Homowo (hooting at hunger) is one of the colourful festivals celebrated by the people of the Ga state which includes Teshie and Nungua. It is celebrated from August to September and characterized by rituals such as the sprinkling of ‘Kpokpoi’ (the festival fish) to the gods and ancestors for spiritual protection, procession of twins through the principal streets, traditional drumming and dancing and general merry making. A month before the celebration, there is a ban on noisemaking. A climax of the festival is that from 12 noon to 6:00pm any woman, no matter the status, should accept a hug from a man on the festival street.
The Kpledzo Festival
Apart from Homowo, the people of Nungua also celebrate the Kpledzo festival which is an annual feast festival of the people of Nungua and takes place on the first Sunday in June. The first activity is the spiritual and physical cleansing of the town in response to the expected visitation of the spirits of the ancestors who would invite the town during the festival. Other aspects of the festival include the rite of Awitsemo (summoning of the gods) as well as the ‘lifting up’ of the Kple drums in preparation of the kple dance which is essentially a series of dances to the end of the festival by the woyei (fetish priestesses). A day during the festival is also spent by the people of the town and their visitors from the villages rejoicing because they have been fortunate to observe another Kpledzo Festival. The youth adorn themselves with green leaves (chiefly of the Nyanya Vine) and there are clowning processions in ridiculous fancy dresses through the streets of the town.
Rites of Passage
Apart from festivals the Gas have important rites of passage which are shown below.
Naming of children
After the child is born, it is ‘kept like an egg’ indoors for seven days. It is then held to have survived seven dangers, and is worthy to be called a person. Very early in the morning of the eighth day (about four o’clock), the naming ceremony (out-dooring ceremony) is carried out in the father’s house to ensure the seal of respectable paternity that would be beneficial to the child. During the process, an older person from the father’s family is chosen, if the child is a girl a woman is chosen and if a boy a man is chosen and the chosen one should be of a good character and offers a traditional prayer and takes the child up in his/her arms and lifts it up three times. He then calls the child by name and makes a special speech concerning what the child should expect in this world and for it to be able to discern between good and evil and also to thread the good path always in life. After this the child is laid naked on the floor (or on a special stone in some families). Then the godfather (or mother) flinks water from a calabash three times on the ceiling so that it trickles down on the child like rain. Then the child as it lies on the ground is blessed. He/ she then strikes the baby gently with the foot and admonishes it to take after his/her good character and cautioning the child to avoid his/her bad points.
It is interesting to note that under Ga culture, the naming of the child is done chronologically and is also unique to each area ie Teshie and Nungua (as in other Ga States). All the various areas therefore have their own set of names and the advantage hear is that the mere mention of a person’s name assigns that person to the family, clan and even the chronological level of the person with respect to his siblings.

Puberty Rites

The puberty rite commonly practiced in the area is known as otofo. Behind this rite is the idea that it is blasphemous and dangerous for a woman to conceive a child before the rites have been performed. Under the otofo custom, girls at the stage of puberty are kept aside for a period varying from six weeks to six months. During this time they eat no fermented food but food out of the earth such as root vegetables and groundnuts. These foods are supplied plentifully to fatten the girls and they are supposed to be visited only by their tutors who are old women who teach them not only the secrets of wifely behavior but the special songs and dances which they would perform publicly when they are released. The tutors also act as confessors where each girl is encouraged to make a clean breast of any moral issue concerning them.

At the end of the training, there are a variety of celebrations which include a day’s parade of the town while they dance gracefully to the admiration of onlookers distributing corn wine and a special food called kunme. This is followed by another ceremony of being taught how to grind corn by old women in a clay bed decorated with sea shells followed by another ceremony at the beach of selecting little nodules of gravel.

One of the foremost beliefs of the indigenes is that of reincarnation. The dead can be born again only in their own families, a grandfather as a grandson or a dead first child as a second child. Childlessness is therefore considered an appalling curse as it blocks the whole line of reincarnation. The belief that the ancestors always have a watchful eye over the living also ensures that people perform rites concerning the dead diligently to avoid the wrath of the ancestors.

Before Europeans interference in Ga culture, people were buried in their houses but in recent times coffins are commonly used and the dead sent to cemeteries for burial. In recent times however there are innovations on unique designs of coffins which give an idea about of the occupation of the dead person. In other words, a fisherman may have his coffin designed in the form of a canoe or a dead driver’s coffin may be in the form of a truck. These are options that are not rigidly enforced but depend on the preference of the family. Visitors to the funeral also give the dead money to pay for their passage to the other side and also to pay for the cure of the sickness of which he/she died.
Currently these burial activities where royals are concerned are a source of attraction but are also a source worry for economic and other social activities where burials come with some customary demands. The existence of the religious/traditional and formal/informal sectors are brought into conflict.

Under Ga custom, a young man who is interested in marrying a young lady first informs his parents of his intentions. The parents, especially the mother conducts a search on the woman’s family to ascertain whether she is of good character and also from a good family. When the parents of the man are satisfied, they perform what is known as a ‘knocking’ ceremony at the girl’s father’s house. The ceremony involves the presentation of drinks the essence is to introduce themselves to the girl’s family and express their intentions. At this point they are informed whether the lady is betrothed to another man or not; if all is clear, the man’s family are informed of the traditions of the woman’s family concerning marriage including the bride price. After this ceremony, the man’s family leaves to prepare for the marriage ceremony.

The woman’s family also finds time to investigate the background of the man and his family to ascertain whether the marriage between the two families is feasible. A date for the marriage is set when all goes well among both parties. On the morning of the ceremony, the man himself is not part of the ceremony but an elderly women from his family leads other women in a procession to the woman’s house with the dowry which usually include drinks, cloth, money and other items The entire ceremony is a very humorous one with both families selecting an okyeame (linguist) who communicates information between the families. An important aspect of the ceremony is when the woman’s family assesses the dowry and satisfies themselves that everything had been presented according to specification. When it is found to be acceptable, the woman, who hitherto has been kept hidden in a room is called and introduced to the man’s family. Praises are then showered on her by the visitors and at this moment the father presents her to the leader of the man’s family in a gesture of handing the girl over to her new family. The ceremony ends with refreshment for all gathered and the presentation of souvenirs to the man’s family and other visitors. The man then comes to the house at a later period, usually the same day to take his wife to her new home.

The Municipality has an impressive culture reflected in the festivals, puberty rites etc. that if developed could enhance to tourism subsequently the local economy. Through an inventory of the tourism potential and the cultural sites a cultural development plan integrated into a comprehensive cultural development framework and be developed.

These activities are a source of attraction to both locals and foreigners who throng the Municipality during such occasions

All these socio cultural activities as well as the diversity of the indigenous people have some development implications for the Assembly

1.3.3 Settlement Systems

Classification of Settlements According to Income Levels
The settlement patterns of the Municipality are based on income classes as calculated on rate imposts on the various residential properties which provides guidance to the property rates charged in the various settlements.

Based on the above the Municipality is categorized broadly under three main zones,
First Class,
Second Class ‘A,’
Second Class ‘B’ and
Third Class based on.

Residential First and Second Class ‘A’ make up the High Income Zones whilst the Second Class ‘B’ covers middle income areas low income communities however, also make up the Third Class areas. The table below shows the various settlements found within the classifications.. The Revenue collectors are able to mobilize revenue within the first and second class areas because settlements patterns are well defined there is easy accessibility; houses are numbered, streets are named and trucks are able to access and collect refuse and also provide easy accessibility for emergencies.. However there is a challenge with the third class areas since location is not well planned with poor road network, houses and streets are not numbered and named, making identification of properties difficult, allays have not been paved and trucks are not able to have access to dislodge septic tanks and collect waste.

Table 4: Classification of settlements by income levels

Rating Zoning Area Affected
Residential First Class Part of  Martey Tsuru, ManetEst/Regiman, , Airport Hill Residential Area, New England
Residential Second Class ‘A’  Addogonno,SSNIT-Grade Est,Adzormana,Teshie- Nungua Est. , Martey Tsuru, Borabora Area, Regimanuel Est. Nungua Barrier

Baatsonaa, Naa Plajo, Hydrofon,Parakuo Est., Beach front,Ranvico Area, Maritime Academy area, Maritime view Est.

Residential Second Class   ‘B’ Tebibianor, Tsuibeloo, Agblezaa, Teshie Fertilizer, Gonyitey-Nungua Barrier, Buade, Camp ‘2’, Cocobeach,Coldstore area, Penny, Gonnor school area,Aboma, Bush road, Sutsurunor,Okesekor,

Demo, First junction, Sango Gonno,Nungua Newtown,Teshie Dar-es-salam,Teshie Manhean.

Residential Third Class Teshie Old Town, Nungua Old Town, Teshie Zongo, Nungua Zongo

The stratification factor of the various income zones uses housing characteristics and environmental conditions. It is realized from the table above that about 41% of localities in the Municipality are inhabited by high income earners while a majority 50% are made up of middle income earners leaving 9% of localities inhabited by low income earners.  High-income zones are characterized by well-defined sector layouts, high taxable property values and good neighbour infrastructure. The rest of the zones follow suit, as the third (four) zone depicts depressed conditions. They are mostly unplanned areas of the municipality with poor or non-existent neighborhood infrastructure and utilities.

The challenge facing the municipality is to enhance opportunities for the middle and low income earners to climb up the social ladder. This is to be done through the enhancement of economic opportunities, as well as sustainable provision of adequate socioeconomic infrastructure in such areas.


  1. Revenue implications
  2. Provision of/and distribution of social and  economic facilities
  3. Sanitation and environmental implications
  4. Spatial planning


Poverty Pockets In the Municipality                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

The poverty profiling of Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipality was conducted as part of the Ghana Federation and People’s Dialogue component of the Cities Alliance sponsored Land Services and Citizenship (LSC) programme which seeks to build the capacity of the urban poor to promote inclusive urban development within Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA).

This profiling was done by People’s Dialogue working in alliance with the Ghana Federation in partnership with the Ledzokuku – Krowor Municipal Assembly (LEKMA). The exercised aimed at identifying the informal settlements within LEKMA and ascertaining details about them with respect to issues around land, housing, education, health, livelihoods, governance, and community development priorities as well as the historical backgrounds.

The exercise involved active participation of the Federation, community leaders, community groups .The table at Appendix table 1 shows the details of the profiling exercise.

From the appendix table 1 the following development issues cut across the ten communities were prioritized

Summary of Key Development Issues

  1. Household toilets
  2. Road network
  3. Public water standpoints
  4. Drains
  5. Skip containers















The Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipal Assembly (LEKMA) has been beneficiary of the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) since 2007.

A total of fifty-five (55) Public Basic Schools in the Municipality are on the programme including two (2) schools funded by LEKMA.  These beneficiary schools comprises six Circuits – Ledzokuku North, Ledzokuku South, Ledzokuku Central, Ledzokuku West, Krowor North, and Krowor South.

The total enrolment figure for the beneficiary schools in the Municipality is 13,342, served by 18 caterers.  Implementation of the programme in the Municipality in respect of locally milled rice and maize given to caterers on credit by national secretariat through national food buffer stock.


The Youth Employment Agency was established under the Youth Employment Act 2015 ( Act 887) to empower young people to contribute meaningfully to social economic and sustainable development of the nation. Its objective is to support the youth between the ages of 15- 35 years through skills training and internship modules to transit from a situation of unemployment to that of employment. The report below has activities carried out by the Agency in 2016.


1. Community  Policing Assistants (CPA) 20 14 6
2. Youth in Fire Service (YiFS) 9 7 2
3. Prison Service Assistant (PSA) 9 9
4. Community Health Workers (CHW) 42 7 35
5. E-Health 3 3
6. Coastal Sanitation 47 13 34
7. Community Education Teaching Assistance 33 7 26
8. Greening Ghana 30 11 19
9. Paid internship 14 3 11




LEAP is a social protection cash transfer intervention that aims to safeguard the extremely poor and vulnerable families, which includes the elderly aged 65yrs and above, severely disabled who are unable to work and orphans and vulnerable children from falling into abject poverty. (percentage of people in this category)

LEAP started in the Municipality in 2015. A total number of 741 households were selected through proxy means testing, however only 7 out of the total qualified to benefit from the intervention. Thus, 5 households from Nungua, 2 households from Teshie. The 5 households from Nungua received their first entitlement in November/ December, 2015. In October 2016 the other two from Teshie started benefiting from the LEAP



The National Health Insurance Scheme, Kpeshie District was established by the National Health Insurance Act 2003, (Act 650) but now Act 852 to provide financial access to quality basic health care for the residents of the district and Ghana as a whole. The District office is located at No. 47 Cocoa Street, Teshie-Nungua Estate and is operational in nine major localities, namely; Hedzoleman (Teshie-Nungua), Martey Tsuru – Teshie, North Teshie, Nungua, South Teshie, Teshie, Teshie Military Zone, Teshie-Nungua Estates and Teshie-Wajir Barracks.

The total enrolled onto the Biometric Membership System (BMS) as at December, 2016 was 72,301 of which 25,233 were new registration and 47, 068 being renewals. The total membership enrolled in 2016 represents a 72% increase of 2016 annual target.

The period recorded for both new registration and renewals an informal registration of 25,158, SSNIT contributors of 6,478, SSNIT pensioners of 308, dependants of 27,179, Aged of 3,013, indigents of 3,879, and pregnant women registration of 6,286.







LED is the process by which Local government, local businesses and other actors join forces and resources to enter into new partnership agreements with each other or other stakeholders to create new jobs and stimulate economic activity in Municipalities, towns and villages.

The Assembly in this regard created a platform and environment to engage stakeholders in implementing strategies and programmes.


The Greater Accra Metropolitan Area Water and Sanitation Project (GAMA-SWP) is an intervention by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) with sponsorship from the World Bank with the objective of increasing access to improved water and sanitation in low-income areas.

The project aims to aid Landlords of Nungua and Teshie to construct household toilets at half price and also construct institutional toilets for some selected basic schools in the Municipality.

A total of 115 household toilets have been constructed while the institutional toilet project is underway and are at various degrees of completion.

The project, when fully implemented in June 2018, will drastically reduce the incidence of open defecation in the Municipality and also improve on the hygiene situation in beneficiary schools.

Details attached in Appendix





In view of the strategic location of the Municipality in the Greater Accra Region and more still its specific location between the national capital, Accra and Tema, the second largest city in the Greater Accra Region, LEKMA is well placed to attract large investment concerns for its economic development due to the prevailing economic climate in the region.


The Municipality is therefore gradually assuming the role of an emerging commercial centre. Among other factors, this is due to the internal economic opportunities that the Municipality provides as well as rising cost and scarcity of economic land within the large cities thereby shifting concentration to neighbouring areas like LEKMA. Consequently the Municipality is now gradually taking its place as an important economic zone for commerce, manufacturing and finance, third after Accra and Tema. Other sectors such as tourism are yet to be developed to their full potential.


In other to facilitate the economic growth of the Municipality, management of the Assembly appreciates that the process of planning for the general development of the economy must of necessity involve broad guidelines and incentives to drive the private sector to both municipal and nationally desired aspirations. This entails close and transparent partnerships between the public sector and formal and informal private sectors so that problems can be identified and addressed pragmatically to ensure that the path of the entrepreneurs are facilitated and smoothened. Issues to be considered in this regard include quick permitting procedures and infrastructural provision to enhance businesses.


The Municipality has several industrial, banks; commercial, development and merchant establishments and a few foreign exchange bureaux. These financial institutions together with strings of shops, restaurants, large scale industrial establishments and other commercial concerns which make up the formal economy are usually located on the Spintex Road, making it the most important commercial zone in the Municipality. The next commercial zone along the Teshie-Nungua Road, although important is however not up to the status of the Spintex Road in terms of socioeconomic infrastructure.


Apart from formal businesses, the municipality has a very large informal sector which operates with very limited institutional structures to support them. In most cases the Assembly is challenged about appropriate zoning for their operation since they spring up at almost all locations in the municipality thereby causing some conflict with city authorities in some instances. They nevertheless contribute immensely in the growth of the local economy in terms of service provision, industry, and employment creation among others. In this light the Assembly should create a sound environment through adequate provision of organized space for them to thrive by periodic capacity building programmes and assistance on economic opportunities.

  1. Revenue mobilization but inadequate data
  2. Financial challenge for the informal sector
  3. Need to revisit the LED policy of the Assembly again


The Municipality also has three markets namely, Nungua market, Tsuibleo and Lascala markets both in Teshie. Food commodities such as tomato, pepper, okro, garden eggs, onions, cassava, plantain, exotic vegetables (carrot, lettuce, cabbage) etc. are sold at these markets. Most of the traders in these markets buy their foodstuffs from other regions apart from buying from farmers in the municipality. These markets are currently facing infrastructural challenges and would require massive investments to improve the situation.



Poor State of Teshie Market               Poor state of access roads leading to Nungua Market


Teshie and Nungua are important fishing communities in the greater Accra region with Tsienaa and Sangonaa being their traditional names respectively. The fisherfolks engage in artisanal fishing. The gears commonly used are Ali and Poliwatsa as well as purse seine nets. Recently there is the introduction of the monofilament net. This net due to its rubber nature is non-biodegradable and such is banned in the marine industry.

Data on canoes

Registered canoes Embossed canoes No of fishermen
Nungua 78 78 510
Teshie 135 121 1000


Catch Data for Teshie

2014 2015 2016
1049.90kg 765kg 712kg


The quantity of fish caught is steadily declining. This could be due to the fact that the number of canoes are increasing. This is making the fishing business non-profitable so fisherfolks need to look at other sources of income

Illegal Fishing

The use of explosives, chemicals, light and undersized mesh to fish have reduced reduced considerably .however the use of monofilament net  is on the ascendancy. This has to be stopped.


The sanitation issues at the two landing sites are bad. Nungua is relatively better than Teshie. Teshie by its location is situated at where the lagoon meets the sea. The lagoon comes with all the waste upstream and deposits everything at the beach.

Clean up exercise at the beach


Teshie-Nungua is one of the major fishing communities in the Greater Accra Region. The nature of fishing in the municipality is basically marine fishing. The type of fish that are caught in the Municipality include Herrings (Round and Flat sardines), Bumper, Tuna (Atlantic little tuna, Spigacer, Chuv Mackerel), Burito, Anchovies, Cassava fish, Thread fin, Shad, Tandora, etc.

Fish processing (smoking, salting and drying) in the municipality is mostly done by women. Smoking is one way of processing and preserving fish. After processing the women store the fish as illustrated in figure 4. The fish is wrapped in clean brown paper sheets and again with polyethylene in a waterproof and an airtight manner to prevent the growth of moulds and rodent attack. During the lean season, and when market prices are favorable, the women obtain high market premiums.

Drying is another option to preserve fish. Fishes like anchovies are preserved in this way. Normally the fish is dried on the bare floor which is unwholesome as it collects sand particles about 30% of fish is lost through the processing stage. This is the norm in almost all fishing communities. In this regard, a technological intervention is needed. Solar drying is one way to remedy the situation. Another option is the use of raised pallets. The Municipal Department of Agriculture has introduced the use of solar drying technology, raised pallets and improved chorkor smokers that are more efficient than the traditional method. However, these require investment and space.