Social Services

a) Educational Characteristics

The Municipality has in total 156 Primary Schools with only 27% of these schools provided by the public sector while as much as 73% are privately owned. In the case of the Junior High Schools, out of a total of 123, 36% are public while 64% belong to private individuals. The Senior High Schools also recorded only 13% of the 15 schools belonging to the public while the majority 87% are owned by the private sector. There is only one tertiary institution in the Municipality, the Regional Maritime University which is privately owned.

Other specialised institutions in the municipality include:

1. The Ghana Commercial Bank training school

2. The Kofi Anan International Peacekeeping Training Center

3. The Ghana Military Academy and the Southern Command of the Ghana Armed Forces.

In addition, there are two nursing training schools in the municipality.

As a common feature of urban centers, the private sector dominates in the provision of educational services and facilities in the municipality and all efforts should therefore be made to encourage the sector in this regard.

Comparison of Public Primary and Public Junior High School Enrolments

The absolute figures for public and private primary and junior high school enrolment shown in the table below was done to access the progression of both male and female along the educational ladder in the municipality.

SexPrimary EnrolmentTotal for PrimaryJunior High School EnrolmentTotal for Junior High School
PublicPrivatePublicPrivate
Male6271-1299-
Female7146-1435-
Total13,4176,99220,4092,6342,7735,407

Table 21: Public Primary and Public Junior High School Enrolment The analysis, as illustrated in the chart below shows that enrolment figures at the primary level experience a drastic fall from 20,409 to 5,407. It is therefore clear that many children from public primary schools in the Municipality are not progressing to Public Junior High Schools. This should be a matter of concern to management of the Assembly since it does not augur well for the educational sector in the municipality.

Figure 13 Progression in Enrolment from Primary to Junior High Schools

Facilities available at Public Primary and Public Junior High Schools.

The public primary and Junior High Schools are usually found in the same cluster and therefore share the same facilities. It is realised from the table below that 56% of the schools in Ledzokuku constituency have only toilets available while 50% of schools in both constituencies recorded that they had neither water nor toilets.

Table 22: Facilities available in the public schools

ConstituencyToilet only available%Water only available%Non Available%
Krowor7444241250
Ledzokuku95613761250
Total161001710024100

State of Public Primary and JSS Schools in the Accra Metropolis

Apart from the problem of toilets and urinals, the assessment was also made to cover the state of public schools in the Municipality for an appreciation of the specific areas of intervention that need immediate attention. The urgency of the repairs is classified under categories of A, B and C with category A being the schools that need the most urgent repairs.

The table below shows the schools that need urgent repairs.

Table 23 Schools that needs urgent repairs.

Name of SchoolState of buildingLocationLocalityCategory
Teshie krobo 1&2 primaryUndulating roof and leakages in roof, weak doors and windows Teshie near the northern cluster of schoolsTeshieA
Teshie 8 JSSDilapidated pillarsTeshie, near the police stationTeshieA
Nungua 2 PrimaryWeak doors and windowsNunguaNunguaC2
Teshie 5 primaryleakage in roof, weak doors and windowsTeshie, near the police stationTeshieC3
Teshie camp 1 primaryWeak doors and windowsTeshie near the police stationTeshieC3
Teshie 1 PrimaryWeak doors and windowsTeshie, near Police StationTeshieB

There are however some schools which are in very good state such as the Teshie Southern Cluster of Schools. The school enjoyed support from the Electrical Survey Board of Ireland and is currently the best public school in the Municipality in terms of infrastructural provision.

Southern Cluster of Schools at Teshie. The best public school in the Municipality

Enrolment of Schools under the National School Feeding Programme.

The primary concept of the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) is to provide children attending public primary school and kindergarten with one hot and nutritious meal, prepared from locally grown foodstuffs during every school day. The GSFP seeks to improve school enrolment and attendance, reduce short term hunger and malnutrition amongst school children as well as the improvement of food security.

The number of public basic schools in the municipality that benefited from the programme was eighteen in number (18) with a total enrolment of 7093. This number of beneficiary schools is made of two (2) Clusters (i.e. Southern and Northern) and one (1) at Nungua. The actual total enrolment figure for beneficiary schools in the municipality as at December 2009 was 6115

The only expansion of coverage to the GSFP in LEKMA was in December 2008, when the Nungua Methodist A and B Primary became beneficiaries of the programme.

Status of Schools under the programme The Assembly achieved a modest progress towards achieving the objective of improving increased enrolment and retention in all basic schools in the municipality. The number of beneficiary schools on the GSFP for the year under review remained unchanged.

No. Name of Primary School No. of Pupils Funded/Quota by GSFP

A. Maclean 1 – Cluster ( Southern Cluster)

1.      Teshie ‘1’380
2.      Teshie ‘5’345
3.      Teshie ‘7’313
4.      Teshie ‘9’429
5.      Teshie ‘11’259
6.      Teshie Camp 1310
7.      Teshie Presby A453
8.      Teshie Presby B467

Maclean 2 Cluster ( Southern Cluster)

1.      Teshie 2330
2.      Teshie 4362
3.      Teshie 6415
4.      Teshie 8331
5.      Teshie 10360
6.      Teshie Methodist390
7.      Teshie Krobor A300
8.      Teshie Krobor B306
9.      Teshie Roman Catholic478

B. Nungua

Nungua Methodist A & B865

It is recommended that a conscious effort be made by the Assembly to explore every possible avenue in the light of the move by the key stakeholders to widen the national GSFP coverage to facilitate the actual realization of the main objectives of the programme in order to address the challenge of inadequate and imbalance programme coverage.

Libraries

The Municipality has a few libraries scattered in some schools but one library with an appreciable level of standard is found in the premises of the Nungua Cluster of Schools. The Library was set up through the Osu Library fund. It is the hope of the Assembly that similar libraries shall be replicated in other locations in the Municipality.

Front view of Library Interior of Library

Key findings relating to the Educational Characteristics

• Female enrolment in public primary schools is higher than males in public primary schools indicating that some inroads are being made in the girl child education programme. • 40% of Junior High Schools are observed to be without toilet and water while only 4% had only toilets available. This is a pointer that much resources should be channelled to improve conditions at the schools. • 30% of primary schools do not have both toilets and water available indicating that much facilities are inadequate in public primary schools. • Enrolment figures at the primary level experienced a drastic fall from 13,417 to 2,634 between in 2007 indicating that many children from public primary schools in the Municipality are not progressing to Public Junior High Schools. • Approximately 39% of primary school children are currently benefiting from the National School Feeding Programme

b) Health Characteristics

Categories of Health Facilities

The Municipality currently has three key types of health facilities namely hospital, health centres/health post and others. These categories are also placed under the broad headings of government, and private. At the moment there are a total of 9 health facilities made up of four (4) hospitals, one (1) health centre/post and four (4) other low hierarchy facilities such as clinics etc.

HospitalHealth Centre/PostOthersTotal
4149

A health centre and reproductive and child health clinics are available to provide clinical/ preventive service in the Municipality which are found within the ranges of out-patient and in-patient, public health services; reproductive and child health services, nutrition, pharmacy, laboratory and X-Ray). There are also specialist hospitals such as the Family Health, Manna Mission and Lister Hospitals which provide obstetric and gynecological procedures as well as catering services. At the moment a 100 bed ultra modern hospital is being constructed by the Chinese Government in collaboration with Government of Ghana.

DiseaseNo. of CasesPositionRate(%)
Malaria427181st38.2
Hypetension28022nd2.5
Anaemea6293rd0.6
Diarrhea5984th0.5
Asthma3485th0.3

Existing public facilities however lack adequate space and facilities for their smooth functioning.

Participation of the private sector in health delivery should also be encouraged through proactive policies.

The abnormally high incidence of Malaria attests to issues relating to poor environmental sanitation in the Municipality which should be a matter of concerned among city managers if the Municipality is to make any headway in addressing such an important health issue. Appropriate policies in this regard are therefore imperative to address this issue.

DiseaseNo. of CasesPositionRate(%)
Suspected Chicken Pox427181st38.2
Tuberculosis28022nd2.5
Neo-natal Tetanus6293rd0.6
Suspected Measles5984th0.5
Yellow Fever3485th0.3

The chart above shows that suspected chicken pox cases was ranked highest as compared to yellow fever which was ranked fifth among the top five non communicable diseases recorded in the Municipality. The Municipality, should as a mater of urgency initiate measures to reduce the cases to the barest medium to ensure adequate health for the people.

HIV/AIDS ISSUES

Voluntary Counselling and Testing

The Municipal Health directorate is currently engaged in a comprehensive educational, counselling and testing campaign at all health facilities in the Municipality in line with the HIV/ AIDS response initiative. In this regard, a “Know-Your-Status” campaign is vigorously being followed at all Out Patient’s Departments and referrals are made to treatment sites.. This is complemented by outreach services to sensitise the people on the need to know their HIV/AIDS status. The Manna Mission Centre and the OPEC Clinic are also planning to start antiretroviral therapy centres.

Condom Use.

Currently condom use as per the planned target for 2009 is 85% with high patronage from both sexes.

Prevention of mother to child transmission

All pregnant women in the Municipality reporting for ante-natal are sensitised, counselled and tested and referred depending upon their status. By the end of 2009, 47 or 2% out of 2,610 pregnant women tested responded positive for HIV/AIDS. It should also be appreciated that the figure could be larger since it includes only recorded cases This is a matter of concern which should attract the Assembly and all stakeholders to pull together their resources to address this developmental issue. Health care providers such as Christian Medical Centre, Manna Mission, OPEC Clinic, Lister Hospital and Family Hospital are providers of services to prevent mother to child transmission.

Advocacy

This is done mainly through television and radio stations, and visits to churches, mosques and schools.

Care and Support.

The health directorate oversees the services provided at the various health facilities, PL support groups and HIV activities in the municipality. The care and support is also done through management of opportunity infections (OIs) and people with the infection are given prophylaxis such as cotrimoxaxole with other OI tablets.

Reported Cases of HIV/AIDS in 2009

The year 2009 saw an increase in the reported cases of HIV/AIDS in the municipality from 47 in 2008 to 174 by the end of 2009. This shows a drastic increase of approximately 270%. It must once again be reiterated that the situation may be worse since these are recorded cases. In increase in the figure could also be attributed to the ongoing sensitisation campaigns and the avenues for voluntary testing and counselling available in the municipality.

Coverage Anti & Post Natal Care

The Municipality fell below the target for ante natal care coverage with 23.7%. Only 3.939 people of the targeted population of 61,473 were covered in the year. It is expected that subsequent years would see an improvement in the coverage to ensure the health of both mother and child during and after pregnancy.

Table 27 Other issues under antenatal care.

IssueNumber RecordedRemarks
Supervised deliveries2184Managed by skilled personnel.
Maternal Deaths1
Still Birth18·         Due to non attendance of anti natal care by mothers
·         No fetal Heart
Post Natal Care2,458
Child Health Services (including childhood immunisation)BCG: 61,645
OPV: 8,644
PENTA 3: 8,644
MEASLES: 11,612
YELLOW FEVER:11561
Family Planning8194This includes male involvement

Sexually Transmitted Infections..

Information from the health directorate indicates that virginal discharge is the key sexually transmitted disease recorded occupying 59% of cases. The next in line is HIV/AIDS infections with 29% of the cases. The least recorded case relates to Genital Ulcer Discharge.

Table 28 Top-Four Sexually Transmitted diseases

TypeCases%
Virginal Discharge35259
HIV/AIDS17429
Urethral Discharge5710
Genital Ulcer Disease142
Total;597100

Performance of the Natural Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS).

There were 575,663 card holders under the scheme as at 31st December 2009 and the key challenges confronting the Municipality under the NHIS include; • Inadequate office space • Delays in payment of claims • Low tariffs • The use of health facility attendance cards which compel clients to throng the various offices in search of their cards thereby creating inconvenience at the Municipal NHIS Offices.

Key findings on Health Characteristics • Malaria is the highest ranked communicable disease • Suspected chicken pox cases was ranked highest as compared to yellow fever which was ranked fifth among the top five non communicable diseases. • Condom use as per the planned target for 2009 is 85% with high patronage from both sexes. • By the end of 2009, 47 or 2% out of 2,610 pregnant women tested responded positive for HIV/AIDS • The Municipality fell below the target for ante natal care coverage with 23.7% • Virginal discharge is the key sexually transmitted disease recorded occupying 59% of cases. The next in line is HIV/AIDS infections with 29% of the cases. The least recorded case relates to Genital Ulcer Discharge.

c) Waste Management

Waste management remains a challenge confronting the Municipality despite efforts so far made and certain areas are characterised by choked drains, indiscriminate waste disposal and uncollected refuse in central waste containers. Other waste also find themselves in water bodies, drainage systems and other open spaces. However, large proportions of this waste is biodegradable making decomposition quite easy.

Notable factors accounting for the waste management problem include: • Poor conceptualization of sanitation and lack of adequate sanitary facilities • Ignorance and irresponsibility of individuals, households and communities • Lack of community action and springing up of unauthorized temporary structures • Continuously increasing number of squatters • Lack of regular budgetary allocation for sanitation and virtual absence of fee based service provision in low income areas

Overview of Waste Collection

The Municipality currently operates a waste management system with the following key elements: • Door-to-door service which attracts service fees and prominent in affluent and well layout areas, but communal container service common in low income areas attracts no fees from beneficiaries. • Service providers are paid directly by beneficiaries for door-to-door service through a franchise arrangement by the Assembly while contracting for communal service collection is common in low income areas. • Disposal of waste attracts a fee per month for waste from door-to-door service but nothing for waste from communal container service • All waste collected are sent to semi-controlled landfill sites within the Municipality known as the Teshie Compost Plant or Fertilser Factory. • Little recycling of plastics and polyethylene occurs with private recycling companies.

Problems with current Waste Management System

The current system is not sustainable due to the non-payment for communal container service, which is estimated to constitute over 80% of service cost. A situation that has resulted in high financial burden for the Assembly. Other problems such as irregular payment of service providers, non-performance by service providers, etc. are all related to financial constraints of the LEKMA. The table below shows the basic information about waste management in the Municipality.

Central Container Locations
NunguaTeshie
NoLocationType/ Size of ContainersExisting Number of ContainersContractorLocationType/ Size of ContainersExisting Number of ContainersContractor
Zongo10cm31DabenBukoshie10 cm 31Daben
Banklane10cm31DabenKponkpa10 cm 31Daben
Market10cm34DabenAdjete Lamor10 cm 31Daben
Presby10cm31DabenNew Market10 cm 31Daben
Old Cemetry-NilDabenAbochi Hanya10 cm 31Daben
Odikoman12cm31DabenAdom10 cm 31Daben
Barrier--DabenAnumantu10 cm 31Daben
Water works10 cm 31Daben
Tsuibleoo Tebibiiano10 cm 31Daben
Yomo Specs10 cm 31Daben
Tebibiiano10 cm 31Daben
Mangoase10 cm 31Daben
Yomo Specs10 cm 31Daben
Teshie Zongo10 cm 31Daben
Presby Church10 cm 31Daben
Total8Total15

House to House refuse collection is contracted to both DABEN and Zoomlion at well laid out areas, institutions and industries at Teshie and Nungua

System in place for liquid waste management for Teshie and Nungua:

• Pan Latrines-underground holding tanks managed by Daben. • Private and public toilets-WC/STL/KVIPS • Sewerage System: Not functioning properly.

Waste management is done jointly by the Municipality and Zoom Lion Company which is a private firm involved in waste management. The company engages youth in wastement as part of their waste management module and collaborates with the Assembly in the performance of the following funtions; • Street Cleansing • Desilting • Refuse Evacuation • Spraying • Cesspit Servces • House to house Refuse collection.

The major challenge is however the weak monitoring by the Assembly in the performance of the functions of Zoomlion. Notwithstanding this challenge, waste collection is encouraging since between February and August 2008, waste collection increased from 392.35 tonnes to 606.75 tonnes indicating a 53% increase. There is however more room for improvement. A key issue worth mentioning is the decommissioning of the Teshie Compost Plant in recent times due to: 1. breakdown of the plant results in negative environmental impact through waste accumulation. 2. the Plant which originally had no settlement in its vicinity, is now within the developed Teshie-Nungua Community which complains about the odour of non composted waste. Such a situation has reason due to weak enforcement of planning schemes in the past.

The area is now expected to be developed into a recreational area.

Laws governing environmental practice

There are elaborate laws governing environmental managements such as:  National Environmental Sanitation Policy, 1999  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Law  the Local Government Act, 1993 (Act 462)  District Environmental Management Plan These laws are not usually effective on the ground because of:  Ineffective monitory and supervision units mandated to handle environmental issues which leads to compromise by those who are expected to ensure compliance

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of the law  Apathy of the public.

Methods of Refuse Disposal

Data collected from the field indicates that four key methods were available for the various houses in the Municipality to dispose of refuse. These include House to House Collection, Communal Collection, Crude Dumping and Burning. In general it was realized that out of 7,271 houses in the Municipality, majority of houses (43%) patronized the Communal Collection System followed by House to House Collection (36%) and Burning (17%). The least used method or refuse disposal was crude dumping which constitutes 3% of responses. It is however worth noting that crude dumping and burning which together make up 20% of cases are considered as illegal waste disposal methods due to the negative environmental impacts associated with these methods. This implies that efforts should be made to discourage such practices. In view of scarcity of land and the increasing population growth in the Municipality measures should also be taken to ensure that more houses join the house to house collection system in line with contemporary trends in solid waste management.

REFUSE DISPOSAL METHODNo.%
HOUSE TO HOUSE COLLECTION2,61836
COMMUNAL COLLECTION3,15343
CRUDE DUMPING2323
BURNING1,26417
TOTAL NO. OF HOUSES7,267100

Apart from the general observations on the Municipal level, the analysis was extended to cover specific localities to identify unique issues that may emerge in such localities. In this regard two communities with varying characteristics were chosen from each electoral area as shown in the table below.

The table above shows that the House to House Collection System is not popular in communities such as Sangonaa, Klorsai and Amanfa which recorded less than 5% coverage. In the cases of Teshie Camp 2 and Odikoman the system was non existent. These communities however demonstrated high patronage of the communal container system with percentages ranging between 52% and 92%. The Municipality should therefore target such communities to introduce the door to door collection system.

It was further discovered among the selected communities that apart from Martey Tsuru, Camp 2 and Odikoman where there was no record of crude dumping all the other communities recorded cases of crude dumping with percentages ranging between 1% and 7%. Burning of refuse was also observed to be present in all communities with Sangonaa and Martey Tsuru both recording the highest level of 38%. Appropriate policies should therefore be developed by the Assembly to discourage such negative waste disposal methods.

Toilets

The field survey also focused on the type of toilets available in the communities to ascertain their adequacy and nature.

Private Toilets

It was revealed that a total of 8,671 private toilets were available in 7,267 residential facilities in the Municipality and the categorization are as shown in the table below with the WC recording the highest use of 66% while the STL recorded 1% as the least used private toilet.

Type of ToiletsNo.%
WC5,69166
KVIP1,05512
VIP5036
STL531
PAN1,06112
PIT3084
 Total8,671100

The common use of other types of toilet apart from the WC such as KVIP, STL, Pan Latrines etc which covers 34% of private toilets is a reflection of the perennial water problem confronting the Municipality because these facilities require minimum amounts of water to operate. This calls for a strong synergy to be created between the agencies that provide water and the Assembly to encourage community members to use more WCs as private toilets. It is also worth noting that in this modern era and also the urbanised nature of the Municipality it is unacceptable that 1,061 (12%) of houses use pan latrines and 308 houses (4%) use pit latrines as private toilets. This is in view of adverse environmental and health effects to the communities concerned.

The table below shows the various types of private toilets in selected communities. It can be inferred that as much as 79% of private toilets in Adoemi are pan latrines while 16% of the private toilets in Zongo are pit latrines. As mentioned earlier these figures are unacceptable in view of the urbanized nature of the Municipality. It is expected that such communities shall be targeted in any intervention initiated by the Assembly or other stakeholders to ensure a more appropriate provision of toilet facilities.

ELECTORAL AREACOMMUNITYNO. OF HSEWCKVIPVIPSTLPANPIT
No.%No.%No.%No.%No.%No.%Total%
SangodjorZongo2108229582072251141864616287100
AkromadeokpooAbochi Hanya.6011256140017399201244100
AkromadeokpooAdoemi9061625000029790037100
Ashietey AkomfraAgblezaa2701685976276062203112289100
TsuibleooAdjorman4653627428546992133347492100
TsuibleooTsotsootsoko12034261512624700151243130100
BrekeseWest Baatsonaa34561692335173102000669100
BrekeseBoade90916515124300271921139100
Nii Odai AmlarloKlorsai1805950220000574800118100
Nii Odai AmlarloSannshie165921512120025602542100
Nii LarwehAwikoonaa12826222162222211632132100
Nii LarwehNegba135764029140000884600193100
KlowekooOkpoigonno420662932246000101142714100
KlowekooNkpor5243745911119376309014152630100

Apart from the individual townships, the various domestic environments classified under indigenous, estate, newly developing and shared afacilities to identify unique features that may occur.

It was appreciated through table 13 that although an appreciable number of water closets were recorded throughout the Municipality, the use of pan latrines is also on the high side. For instance 1061 cases were identified with majority (827) of them found in indigenous areas. This indicates that a substantial number of people are still using such outmoded toilets and efforts should be undertaken to abolish it. A few pit latrines were also observed in affluent areas such as the estates and this calls for appropriate interventionary measures since this does not augur well for effective city management.

[table "0" not found /]

Public Toilets:

Apart from private toilets, the survey also covered the types and number of public toilets in the Municipality and it was revealed that there are a total of 54 public toilets in the various communities. These were usually found in low income high density areas where private toilets were in the minority. while the more Acceptable WC s were only 18%. This once again underscores the need for the Assembly to initiate measures to modernize the public toilets to reflect modern trends. This point is being made in view of the fact that such toilets are constructed primarily for the use of visitors and therefore the more modern they are the better the image of the Assembly.

In reality however, It is appreciated that the public toilets are utilized mostly by large sections of deprived communities where private toilets are not very common thereby placing severe pressure on the toilets. Most of them are therefore in very poor shape and therefore the need for enforcement of building regulations and comprehensive programmes for household toilets can therefore not be overemphasized.

Type of ToiletNo.%
WC1833
KVIP1935
VIP24
STL1324
PAN24
Total54100

Certain low income communities without public toilets were also identified in the survey as shown in the table below to guide future policies of the Assembly.

Toilet Facilities in Non Residential Areas

ELECTORAL AREACOMMUNITYNo. of Hses
1Ashietey AkomfraLow Income area of Martey Tsuru120
2TsuibleooTsotsootsoko120
3BrekeseKwashieman225
4Nii Odai AmlarloAntwere Gonno180
5Nii LarwehSookpoti150
6Nii LarwehNegba135

In other to appreciate the adequacy of toilet provision at other areas in the Municipality apart from residential the exercise was extended to cover other aspects of the municipal economy such as markets, lorry stations, hotels etc.

With respect to markets and lorry stations it was realized that the situation was nothing to write home about since only 3 units of WC and 1 KVIP were available in a total of 5 markets while only 4 units of WC and 1 KVIP were available in 11 Lorry stations. The large numbers of people that patronise these two facilities calls for an improvement in the number of toilet facilities there.

In the same way it was also appreciated that given the large numbers of school children and teachers in the Municipality, 335 WC Units for 304 schools is not only considered woefully inadequate but the use of KVIPs, Pit Latrines and VIP is also unacceptable and should be discouraged .

Total No.PitVIPKVIPWCPanSeptic Tank
(Number of Units))
Markets5001302
Lorry Stations11001402
Hotels/ Guest Houses5400027600
Restaurant and Chop Bars78400018700
Shops11886301017400
Schools304157218033507
Health Facilities9100010800
Industrial Premises3441011935070

Bath Houses and Sullage Disposal

The study also covered the types of bath house available in the Municipality as well as the Sullage disposal methods being practiced to ascertain the sanitation end environmental issues that may emerge. It was realized that four categories of bath houses were in use in the various communities. These include those who have their bath houses inside their house, outside their house, shared by few houses and fourthly those who use public bath houses. Apart from the first category which is common in affluent areas such as Teshie Nungua and Greda Estates, the other categories are very common in some middle income and virtually all low income communities.

The table below shows that approximately 96% of houses had bath houses for their exclusive use (ie inside the house and within the compound outside the house while less than 1% of the community patronized public bath houses. The problem relates to the fact that 316 houses (3.1%) recorded that they share bath houses. The inconvenience associated with this arrangement should be discouraged as a matter of priority for the Assembly.

A comparative analysis made on the type of bath houses and method of sullage disposal showed that houses that had bathrooms within the house and outside the house were in the majority with approximately 96% of responses. This is indicative that most houses have convenient access to their bath houses. Further analysis also reveals that those using conventional or acceptable methods of sullage disposal; sewer and soak pit constitutes 2.7% and 65.5% respectively amounting to an approximate 68% of responses. The unconventional sullage disposal methods practiced in the various communities therefore constitute 31.8% ie gutters (14.5%), ditches (3.2%) and vacant plots etc (14.1%). It is therefore inferred that although majority of houses (96%) have convenient access to their houses as much as 31.8% of them dispose of sullage illegally and this therefore calls for pragmatic approaches to manage sullage generated in the variouses houses.

The low patronage of the sewer system is reflective of the fact that Teshie Nungua Estates, a well laid out middle income settlement, is the only settlement in the Municipality that has a sewer network. Most houses are therefore compelled to utilize the next alternative of using the soak pit method which also has long term adverse environmental effects of polluting the water table in various communities. The large percentages of unacceptable sullage disposal methods such as gutters, ditches and vacant plots should also be a matter of concern in view of the insanitary conditions associated with the practice, especially in low income communities.

The situation in respect of specific communities with regards to bath houses and sullage disposal was also ascertained in order to ensure effective targeting of the communities in interventions that may be developed to address sanitation issues.

Table 15 below shows that Teshie Nungua Estates is the only community connected to the Municipal Sewer System with 84% of respondents indicating that they used the sewer system. Conversely Adjorman, another well planned middle income area not connected to the sewer system has as much as 58 % of respondents saying that they use the soak pit system as an alternative. The Zongo area also recorded a majority 96% using the soak pit system although.

Notwithstanding the high patronage of the soak pit system in most communities, almost all communities responded that some houses used illegal methods of sullage disposal. For example, 71% the Authority community of the Nii Larweh Electoral area recorded an unacceptable figure of 71% for those who used vacant plots, bushes, open spaces etc to dispose of sullage .

Dumping Sites

The various dumping sites assessed at the school, industrial and public (community) level showed that 67%, 36% and 46% of public, school and industrial dumping sites respectively are unapproved for refuse disposal. These are alarming figures that have very adverse implication for residents of the Municipality. For instance apart from the problem at the community level, 36% of illegal dumping sites on school compounds is also indicative of the fact that a large section of adjoining communities to schools illegally dump refuse on school compounds thereby endangering the health of teachers and school children as well as the neighbouring communities themselves. The negative environmental impacts associated with illegal dumping of industrial waste can also not be ignored if the Municipality is to make any headway in environmental management.

Table 40 overleaf shows that communities such as Teshie Nungua Estates, Sangonaa and Kwashie Man are a few examples of communities where there are illegal dumping sites while Antwere Gonno and Coco beach area also provide good examples of places where portions of school sites are used as dumping grounds.

Table:41 Selected Communities with Approved or Unapproved Dumping Sites

d)Sources of Water

The field exercise showed that although water provision or supply is not very adequate throughout the Municipality it was realized that the quality was good with 99.88% of houses mentioning that they got access to pipe born water or from tanker supply.

SourceNo.%
Pipe Borne/ Tanker Supply595299.88
Bore Hole60.12
Total5958100

A few communities such as Penny, Odikoman, Teshie Nungua Estates and Nkpor however showed isolated cases of less than 1% where the members relied on boreholes. The use of ponds or streams as sources of water were absent and It can therefore be inferred that in general water quality is good but measures should be taken to improve supply.

Slaughter Facilities and Meat Shops

The survey also assessed issues pertaining to the way meat is handling in view of the health implications and it was realized that no slaughter slabs exist in the Municipality and this has compelled people to slaughter animals along the beaches of the Municipality. such a situation has further aggravated the already poor environmental situations in such areas.

In terms of the meat shops the survey revealed that out of a total of eight meat shops in the Municipality as much as 62.5% operated under unhygienic conditions and examples of these were seen in Zongo, Authority, Nkpor and Okpoigonno. Measures should therefore be undertaken to improve the unhygienic conditions at the meat shops located in these communities.

ConditionNo.%Locations
Hygienic337.5Teshie Nungua Estates,
Unhygienic562.5Zongo, Authority, Niijorn. Nkpor, Okpoigonno.
 Total8100

e) Public Health Issues

The Municipality has 12 cemeteries with 6 being Royal while the other 6 are public. None of these cemeteries is however in good shape because in most cases they are not well managed and are therefore unkempt. A situation which makes them a den for criminals as well as an illegal refuse damp for adjoining communities. This constitutes a major challenge for the Assembly to initiate the necessary measures to intervene in order to address this issue. It is appreciated that when the cemeteries are well managed they would not only beautify the communities but also serve as a source of revenue for the Assembly. The table below shows locations of the various cemeteries.

ConstituencyLocationRemarks
1LedzokukuSangonaaPublic
2LedzokukuPresbyterian ChurchPublic
3LedzokukuGreda EstatesPublic
4LedzokukuAgbaweRoyal
5LedzokukuGbugblaRoyal
6LedzokukuKroboRoyal
7LedzokukuLenshiRoyal
8KroworFayorPublic
9KroworDutch Hotel AreaPublic
10KroworPresby AreaPublic
11KroworMoiweRoyal
12KroworOdikomanRoyal

The state of public toilets also posses another development challenge for the Assembly. A head count of public toilets reveals that there are 54 public toilets in the Municipality. The Assembly has a management contract with private individuals in the management of these facilities. It is also worth mentioning that most of the public toilets are found in deprived sections of the Municipality and there has been a shift from its original purpose of serving visitors to the communities to its current use by households. In other words the public toilets are now the inconvenient substitute for majority of households who lack domestic toilets. The toilets themselves are a menace to the urban poor because in most instances they are far too few and far too poorly managed. The need for a enforcement of building regulations and comprehensive programmes for household toilets can therefore not be overemphasised.

The Assembly has however initiated measures to replace very old public toilets with new and modern ones, in line with modern trends. The challenge however relates to supply of water to these new toilets due to the generally poor water supply network in the Municipality.

The lack of household toilets in deprived areas also points to the fact that urinals are non existent in such areas. It is therefore common to observe illegally constructed makeshift urinals designed across community drains. There is also one modern butchers shop at the Teshie Market to ensure proper handling of meat sold to the public but there is the need for the Assembly to provide adequate slaughter slabs to ensure that the animals are slaughtered under hyginic circumstances.

Staffing Issues for Public Health

The Public Health Department revealed that there were a total of 40 officers of various ranks in the Municipality at post in the Municipality as at the time of the survey. This figure was however found to be inadequate in view of a backlog of 14 staff required. The table below shows the various staffing levels and the backlog that needs to addressed to improve the staffing situation.

NO.STAFFINGNO. AT POSTBACKLOG
1CEHO10
2ACEHO20
3PEHO22
4SEHO34
5EHO GD114
6EHO GD214
7PEHA130
8SEHA100
9EHA70
TOTAL4014

Key findings identified under Waste Management and Public Health

1. High levels of crude dumping and burning which constitutes 20% of solid waste disposal methods 2. Only 36% of municipality enjoy house to house collection system 3. 12% of houses use pan latrines 4. 4% of houses use Pit Latrines. 5. 66% of household toilets are WC. 6. Over reliance on public toilets in deprived communities 7. Lack of public toilets in some deprived communities 8. 31.8% of houses have illegal sullage disposal methods. 9. Only 2.7% of houses in the municipality have access to the Sewer Network 10. 67%, 36% and 46% of public, school and industrial sites are illegal. 11. Water connection and supply is a key issue 12. Lack of slaughter facilities in the entire municipality 13. 65% of Meat shops are operated under unhygienic conditions 14. Staff Backlog: 2 PEHOs, 4 SEHOs, 4 EHO GD1s, 4 EHO GD2s. 15. Only 3 units of WC and 1 KVIP were available in a total of 5 markets 16. Only 4 units of WC and 1 KVIP were available in 11 Lorry stations 17. Only 335 WC Units were available for 304 schools. 18. Unacceptable use of KVIPs, Pit Latrines and VIP in schools.

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