Vulnerability Analysis

Poverty Indicators, The Urban Poor, Causes of Poverty and Coping Mechanisms, Tentative Poverty Pockets, Category 2 of Urban Poverty: Squatters, Hawkers, Porters and informal establishments, The Physically Challenged, Gender Issues

a) Poverty Indicators

Indicators such as income levels, efficiency of solid waste management system, access to water, room occupancy, nature of access to toilet facilities, housing typology, housing density and population density are the indicators identified to measure the extent of poverty in the Municipality. Table 46 shows the poverty situation in the various income classes of LEKMA.

Table 47 Poverty Situation in the Income Classes
Indicator    Facilities/ Services and Level of desirability.    Indicator Levels
Desirable     Undesirable     Relative Poverty  Pockets    Absolute Poverty Pockets
Income Levels    More than 1 dollar a day (Middle Income)        Between $1 and $2    Less than $1 per dy
Solid Waste Collection System    Door-to-door collection (All income classes)    Burnt by household, public dump, Dump elsewhere, Buried by Household  (Middle and Low Income Classes)    50% -65.99%                          66%  and above
Nature of access to water.    Within house, Tanker supply     In another house, , /rain water,  (some low income areas)    50% -65.99%                          66%  and above
Room Occupancy    Three, four five, six, seven, eight, (Low Income)    One room, two rooms (Middle and Low Income Classes)    50% -65.99%                          66%  and above
Nature of access to toilet facilities.    WC, KVIP (All Income Classes)    Bucket/Pan, Facility in another house, Public Toilet , No Facility, others (Low income areas)    50% -65.99%                          66%  and above
Housing Typology    Separate House Semi_detached,  Flat/Apartment,  Compound Houses Hotel/Hostel .(High, Middle and Low Income Areas)    Kiosk/Container, Room, Attached to shop, Other (Low Income areas)    50% -65.99%                          66%  and above
Housing Density            1000 -1999.99 Houses/sq  km     2,000 Houses/sq km and above
Population Density.

b)The Urban Poor

The Municipality generally has an urban character and any meaningful discussion on poverty issues in LEKMA should first determine who constitutes the urban poor. Existing literature reveals that there are three main categories of poverty in any urban setting.

Firstly urban poverty can be manifested at the level of the household within a community and in this case the indicators for measuring the level of poverty may include densely populated dilapidated buildings, inadequate household facilities and overstretched community infrastructure, epidemics, social vices, poor sanitation to mention few. Typical examples of such areas are Teshie and Nungua Old Towns. This category of urban poverty constitute the main focus of intervention in many poverty reduction programmes.

The second category of urban poor are those that are affected by poverty singly or at the level of the nuclear family although they reside in communities that are not normally categorised as poor. Such groups such as house helps, squatters etc would manifest their individual poverty, financially, although they reside in affluent neighbourhoods. This group is also found scattered in commercial areas of the Municipality.

It is therefore clear that any discussion on urban poverty should appreciate the spatial dimensions of these two categories and the complex interrelations that exist between and among them within the urban setting. Unique and pragmatic interventions are therefore required to be designed to suit each poverty category to ensure that desired impact are felt.

There is also a third group who may not necessarily be poor financially but experience deficiencies of a communal nature in their communities which have a causal relationship with poverty. Examples of such deficiencies, usually found in middle income areas and some high income areas, include inadequate security, poor  water supply, poor drainage and road conditions etc.

c) Causes of Poverty and Coping Mechanisms

Poverty has causes that are diverse and complex and include laziness, attitudes of the people towards work, poor management of scarce but available resources, seasonal unemployment, large family sizes, and lack of skill training among others. To survive in a complex and challenging urban setting such as the LEKMA the poor may adapt to cope with their vulnerable conditions, some of which are legal and accepted by the society. Petty trading and multiple employment are legal coping mechanisms adopted to ensure sustainable livelihoods. There are however other illegal means such as prostitution, armed robbery, gambling etc that may be used as a means of survival. However, it is envisaged that any poverty reduction programme should incorporate skill training, provision of seed capital, flexibility in loan system, interventions by NGO’s, CBO’s etc.

d)Tentative Poverty Pockets

The tentative pockets in the municipality are discussed here based on the first two categorizations of poverty already discussed.

Category 1 of Urban Poverty: Indigenous areas (Nungua and Teshie Old Towns)

Nungua Old Town

Information collected from documentations of the World Bank Sponsored Urban Six Project implemented in Nungua Old Town reveals that the settlement is one of the oldest Ga Fishing communities along the coast of the Greater Accra Region and has experienced a lot of growth in population due to its proximity to both Accra and Tema. The community has also experienced invasion and succession of micro enterprises due to high turnovers and the

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growth in population has however not been compensated for in terms of provision of socio economic and technical infrastructure. A situation that has led to the emergence of serious problems, especially in the water sector.

The predominant occupation in the area is manufacturing, which engages about 33.2% of the labour force. After Manufacturing is Trading, which accounts for 25.3%. On the whole, the economic dependency ratio of Nungua Old Town is 1:1.97 which implies that an employed person looks after about 2 persons who are either unemployed or economically inactive.

There area has 1774 males as against 1439 females. This puts the sex ratio at 123:100 which indicates the predominance of males over females. Survey data for the Urban Six Project further showed that about 49.9% of respondents were aged 0-19 years, about 46% for those aged 20-64 years and 3.3% for those above 64 years. This fairly youthful population is a potential that could be harnessed to implement projects and thereby decrease poverty in the area.

Fig 22 Map of Old Nungua

Teshie Old Town

Teshie Old Town is another low income indigenous community in the Municipality and although it does not have the advantage of survey data as is the case in Old Nungua, available data reveals that the community has a population of about 35,410as at 2000. The predominant occupation is fishing, fish mongering, driving, petty trading etc. The community is also currently confronted with a very serious water problem and at the moment, one bucket of water is sold for 1,000. They also lack adequate sanitary sites, which leads to the dumping of refuse at the shores of the sea thereby polluting the sea with both solid and liquid waste. The buildings in the area are so clustered and accessibility is often difficult.

Category 2 of Urban Poverty: Squatters, Hawkers, Porters and informal establishments.

This second group of urban poverty are usually left out in poverty reduction programmes. They are usually found in medium and high income areas as well as in commercial areas of the Municipality. It is common to find them sleeping at the frontage of shops, kiosks, containers and other make shift structures. A situation that usually makes them a nuisance in the areas that they reside. Notwithstanding this problem it must be play that this group has an immense role to play in the economy of the Municipality and as such they should be organised within the communities, where possible, and recognised in poverty reduction programmes.

e) The Physically Challenged

The need to empower the physically challenged economically and integrate them into the wider society is very paramount in the achievement of the aspirations of the Assembly. Currently, there are two major associations of the physically challenged that have registered with the Assembly. These are …….for Teshie with a membership of 45 and Hope for Life for Nungua with a membership of 70. The male-female distribution is 18-17. The Social Welfare Department, among other functions seeks to promote the welfare and well being of all the physically challenged persons in the Municipality and integrate them into the wider society for an enhanced human resource development and increased production.

The specific objectives include
1.    To sensitise the physically challenged on their rights, roles and responsibilities
2.    To educate the general public and especially parents/guardians, siblings and relatives of the physically challenged on their rights, discrimination against them, stigmatization and accepting them as members of the family and society
3.    To tap the full potentials of the physically challenged for development
From the 2% allocation from the DACF and funds from other sources, the assembly will provide financial assistance and direction for the wellbeing of the physically challenged through the following programmes;
1.    Promote their mobility
2.    Provide working capital or tools to support their trades
3.    Support their apprenticeship or education
4.    Support their organisation and mobilisation or association
5.    Support their participation and involvement in games and related programmes
6.    Encourage and facilitate the employment of qualified members in the formal sector
7.    Do business with the associations where possible
The physical implementation of the above programmes is expected to consider the age, sex and occupational status of the applicant. These and other programmes and projects that will unfold will be executed through the facilitation of the committee put in place to advise the Assembly and provide guidelines for the disbursement of the funds through the direct supervision by the Department of the Social Welfare of the Municipality.

f) Basic Information about Social Welfare
The following are the basic information on social welfare issues in the Municipality.
1.    Cases of child poverty:            -      31
2.    Physically Challenged:
I.    Nungua                -     70
II.    Teshie                    -      45
Total                    -          100
3. Orphanages                -       5
4. Registered Orphanages            -       2
Teshie Orphanage
•    Total number of children:        -      35
•    Number of Boys            -      18
•    Number of Girls            -      17
•    Source of Funds            -      individuals, volunteers and Churches.
Nungua Orphanage
•    New Life Orphanage (Nungua)
•    Total number of children:        -      35
•    Number of Boys            -      16
•    Number of Girls            -      19
•    Source of Funds            -       individuals, volunteers and churches.
5. Number of NGOs                -      19
•    Number of registered NGOs:        -      10
6. Registered Daycare in the Municipality-    105

g) Gender Issues

Currently, women occupy about 51% of the population of the municipality while the other 49% are males which gives a sex ratio of 1:1.04 males to females. The need to target women in any development programme can therefore not be overemphasized. The appreciation of gender issues is appreciated within the spheres of the municipal economy, culture, political and institutional issues as well as education. These are briefly discussed below.


The Municipality has a large proportion of its population in the middle and low income groups and women are in the majority. The most  striking feature, however, is that the greater percentage of women work  in commerce or small scale manufacturing in the informal sector in activities with low productivity which on average yield low productivity.

Institutional and Political Arrangements

Only a small number of women have broken into modern sector occupations and even fewer into managerial positions and the Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipal Assembly is not an exception.  Data from the Administration Department of the Assembly indicates that as at 31st December, 2009 the Municipal Assembly had staff strength of 230. From this number, 118 are males with 112 females.  The Municipal Chief Executive and the Municipal Coordinating Director are males. Out of a total of thirteen (13) heads of departments, 8 are males with 3 females. This trend clearly shows the dominant position occupied by men at the top level management. The picture is also similar within the political context where out of the twelve Assembly members, only two are females representing 16.7%. Of the two females, one is elected and the other appointed.

Cultural Issues

The Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipality is a predominantly Ga community and therefore the  patrilineal system of inheritance is observed, especially in indigenous areas. This practice greatly affects women decision making and ownership of property, women traditionally do not own land and can neither use it as collateral to access credit facilities. Relative to men, women generally have limited access to formal credit and those that have been targeted towards women have been gender biased in content.


Gender differences in enrollment for formal education have narrowed slightly over the years at the lower levels due to gender sensitive policies implemented by successive governments but the problem persist particularly at the higher levels.  Investment in male education is often perceived to be more important due to limited funds. The continuing gender imbalance in access to education limits women’s access to employment and productivity.

Gender Mainstreaming

To ensure gender mainstreaming in the Assembly’s development plan, a gender desk has been created to facilitate the process. In this regard, a participatory approach to decision making has been adopted by the Assembly. Community members and other stakeholders are frequently consulted throughout the various stages in the formulation of the plan. A number of community fora has been organised with focus on the vulnerable in the society including women, children, physically challenged among others. At the community level, the Assembly members also champion the views and concerns of the vulnerable in the various electoral areas and push forward their agenda to ensure their implementation by the Assembly.

Key findings Under Vulnerability Analysis
•    The predominant occupation in Nungua is manufacturing, which engages about 33.2% of the labour force.
•    On the whole, the economic dependency ratio of Nungua Old Town is 1:1.97 which implies that an employed person looks after about 2 persons who are either unemployed or economically inactive.
•    There is the need for poverty reduction programmes to support underprivileged people in informal or squatter communities.
•    Petty trading and multiple employment are legal coping mechanisms adopted to ensure sustainable livelihoods by the poor. There are however other illegal means such as prostitution, armed robbery, gambling etc that may be used as a means of survival.
•    Poverty reduction programme should incorporate skill training, provision of seed capital, flexibility in loan system, interventions by NGO’s, CBO’s etc.
•    The Gender Desk officer should be resourced to facilitate gender mainstreaming in the Municipality
•    Social welfare issues should be streamlined and appropriate policies developed to address them.

1.2.11 Key Development Issues.

The above analysis on the municipal has revealed some key issues affecting the development of the municipality and these are outlined below.

•    Poor environmental conditions in coastal areas
•    Inadequate number of trees
•    Encroachment on water ways
•    Poor state of roads and drains
•    High incidence of traffic on major road corridors
•    Low level of internally generated revenue
•    Unemployment
•    Poor state of market facilities
•    Poor state / inadequate educational
•    Poor enrolment
•    Inadequate health infrastructure and services
•    Inadequate sanitary situation
•    Poor water supply
•    Poor infrastructure at commercial areas
•    Limited economic opportunities
•    Security issues
•    Inadequate land for social services

Apart from the above developmental issues the community needs and aspirations derived from interface held with the community also revealed pertinent and related issues such as the ones listed below.

•    Poor condition of roads and drains.
•    Inadequate health facilities
•    Poor sanitary conditions
•    Inadequate supply of potable water
•    Poor state of educational infrastructure
•    Inadequate educational infrastructure
•    Unemployment in deprived communities
•    Inadequate security/street lights
•    Lack of public recreational facilities
•    Incidence of crime in deprived areas
•    Encroachment on public land by private individuals.
•     Absence of fire hydrants at markets and other public places

The two sets of developmental issues identified were further harmonised by assessing the linkage between them using a scale of 0 to 2 where the zero (0) score indicates no linkage, one (1) indicates weak linkage and the score of two (2) shows strong linkage between the two sets of issues. This was followed by the calculation of an average score for the issues. An average score greater than one (1) or equal to one (1) shows a harmonious linkage between a particular issue and all the issue in the other set. The converse also indicates that there is no strong link with other issues in the other category and therefore that particular issue should be revised.

This is demonstrated in the matrix shown overleaf which indicates that all issues in the two categories are harmonious linked together since all the average scores were greater than 1. (ie between 1 and 1.7)
Poor environmental condition in coastal areas    Inadequate number of trees    Encroachment on waterways    Poor State of Roads and Drains    Traffic Congestion    Low level of internally generated revenue    Poor state of / inadequate educational facilities    Poor enrolment    Inadequate health infrastructure and services    Poor Sanitary Situation    Poor infrastructure at commercial areas    Poor Water Supply    Inadequate economic opportunities    Security/Governance issues    Inadequate land for social services    TOTAL SCORE    AVERAGE SCORE    RANK
Poor condition of roads and drains    1    0    2    2    2    2    0    0    2    2    2    0    1    1    0    17    1.13
Inadequate health facilities    0    0    1    1    2    2    0    0    2    2    0    2    2    2    2    18    1.2
Poor sanitary condition    2    0    2    2    1    2    2    0    2    2    2    2    2    0    2    23    1.5
Inadequate Supply of potable water    0    2    1    1    0    1    2    0    2    2    2    2    2    0    0    17    1.13
Poor State of educational infrastructure    0    1    2    2    0    2    2    2    0    2    0    2    1    2    0    18    1.2
Inadequate educational infrastructure    0    1    2    2    0    2    2    2    0    2    0    2    1    2    0    18    1.3
Unemployment in deprived communities    2    2    0    2    0    2    0    2    2    2    2    1    2    2    2    23    1.5
Inadequate security lights    2    0    1    2    0    2    2    0    0    2    2    0    2    2    0    17    1.13
Lack of public recreational facilities    2    2    0    0    0    2    0    0    0    2    0    2    2    1    2    15    1
Incidence of crime in deprived areas    1    0    0    0    0    2    2    2    0    0    2    0    2    2    2    15    1
Encroachment on public land and waterways by private individuals    2    0    2    2    2    1    2    2    2    2    2    2    0    2    2    25    1.7
Absence of fire hydrants at markets and other public places    0    0    2    2    0    2    1    0    2    0    2    2    1    0    1    15    1

Harmonised Development Issues
In appreciation of the positive or strong linkage between the two sets of issues, it is imperative that they are harmonised to avoid repetition. An attempt has also been made in this regard to include (where necessary) some related elements on the harmonised development issues to ensure focus on them during the project development phase.
The harmonised developmental issues confronting the Assembly therefore include:
•    Poor condition of roads and drains: poor state of alleys in indigenous areas, underutilisation of rail corridor.
•    Inadequate health facilities
•    Poor sanitary condition: inadequate household toilets, high unsustainable expenditure on waste management, poor state of public toilets, limited number of house hold toilets, inadequate skip containers.
•    Inadequate Supply of potable water
•    Poor State of educational infrastructure and facilities
•    Inadequate educational infrastructure
•    Poor state of community infrastructure
•    Unemployment in deprived communities: poor development of tourism
•    Lack of public recreational facilities
•    Incidence of crime in deprived areas
•    Encroachment on public land and waterways by private individuals
•    Absence of fire hydrants at markets and other public places
•    Poor environmental situation at coastal areas
•    Inadequate health infrastructure and services
•    Security/Governance issues: inadequate access to information on best practices, ineffective coordination of plans and policies, capacity building, unavailability of municipal office complex and sub structures, lack of central public meeting place, lack of street lights.
•    Inadequate land for social services-, inadequate open spaces, poor state of community infrastructure, poor housing infrastructure in deprived areas, poor state of cemeteries.
•    Inadequate supporting infrastructure in commercial areas: inadequate shopping/ market facilities and lorry parks, haphazard arrangement of directional signs/ kiosks and containers, limited parking facilities.
•    Inadequate internally generated funds
•    Inadequate trees: depletion of green belt


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