Agriculture

  • Food Crop Production
  • Animal Production
  • Agricultural Programmes and Services

  • The major agricultural activities in the municipality are: crop farming, livestock and poultry production, fishing and other alternative source of livelihood (grass cutter, rabbit and mushroom production) and Agro processing.
    Food Crop Production


    The nature of Food production in the municipality is mostly backyard and small scale farming however, there few commercial farmers. The average land area per farmer is about 0.5 acre. At Teshie the farming areas are around Harbin recreational centre, Teshie Military Camp, bush road, Okpoigonno, Tsuibleo, Marteytsuru, Tebibiiano, Korjor and Demo. Most of the farmers are into vegetable cultivation and few stable crops like maize and cassava. At Nungua the farming areas are Nautical, Addogonno Blekesse Gonno and Buade. Maize, plantain, cassava, pepper, okro, garden eggs, groundnut and watermelon are mostly the crops cultivated.
    Below is the statistical data on major crops cultivated in the Municipality.
    Table 16 Statistical data on major crops under cultivation in 2009
    Animal Production

    Urbanization has caught up with the municipality leading to the unavailability of large arable for cropping hence most of the farmers in the municipality are into animal  production especially small ruminants.
    1. Small Ruminants

    Small ruminant production is considered as an integral part of the livelihood of most households in the municipality. Most Households depend on these animals as a source of income and protein. During the major season, small ruminant farmers feed the animals with pasture, Cassava and plantain peels are used as supplementary feed.
    According to the results from the recent livestock census embarked upon by the Agricultural Extension Agents, 3,919 goats and 1,840 sheep were recorded. The census was sponsored by LDP to help policy formulation and also to know the number of various livestock species in the municipality
    Sheep production in the municipality
    2. Cattle Production

    There are few cattle due to the lack of grazing lands in the municipality. This reflected in the few number cattle (260) recorded during the recent livestock census embarked upon by Agricultural Extension Agents.
    3.Poultry production

    Poultry production has been a major part of the food supply system in the municipality. Most farmers are into large scale production. A total of 15, 229 exotic birds, 6,266 local birds, 397 Guinea fowls, 264 ducks, 72 pigeons and 13 Turkey were recorded during the latest Livestock Census.
    Large scale poultry production
    4.Pig Production
    Pig production is a venture which is gradually taking its roots in the municipality.  This reflected in a  number of   Swine (250) recorded during the Livestock Census The industry  however, has faced a number of conundrums, one of which is poor management of the animals e.g. lack of housing, poor feeding and poor sanitation practices. Pig farmers in the municipality have experienced the outbreak of African swine fever which resulted in death of about 110 pigs.
    Figure 36 Pigs sleeping under trees due to lack of housing for them
    Table 17 Statistical data on major animals reared in the Municipality.
    Alternative sources of livelihood

    Grass cutters, rabbits and mushroom production are gradually taken its root in the municipality as source of alternative income. The Municipal Agricultural Development Unit sees these ventures to be feasible in the Municipality because their production do not require large land size and hence their production are been promoted.
    Figure 37 Rabbit production in the municipality
    Agro Processing
    Moringa leaves are being processed into powder form in the Municipality.
    5.Fisheries
    Teshie -Nungua is one of the major fishing communities in the Greater Accra Region.The nature of fishing in the municipality is basically marine fishing
    Main fishes caught
    The type of fish that are caught  in the municipality include Herrings (Round and Flat sardines), Bumper, Tuna (Atlantic little tuna, Spigacer, Chuv Mackerel), Burico, Anchovies, Cassava fish, Thread fin, Shad, Tandora, etc. Fish processing (smoking, salting and drying) in the municipality is mostly done by the women.
    Figure3 8 Harvested fish on the ground and in baskets
    Main challenges in the fishing industry
    • Absence and enforcement of fisheries bye- laws
    • Unapproved methods of fishing eg. Light, pair trawling, use of chemicals at sea, usage of unsuitable fishing gear
    • High cost fishing inputs eg. Fishing nets, out board motors etc.
    • Long distribution chain for pre mix fuel
    • No social security for fisher folks
    • No insurance cover for fisher folks
    Agricultural Programmes and Services

    Major programmes and services that are rendered by the Municipal Agricultural Development Unit to farmers and other stakeholders include  are: General Extension Services, veterinary services, farmer and staff capacity building,  market extension,  Organize Annual Farmers Day Celebration, facilitating farmers access to credit, and  Conducting farm demonstrations and organizing field day.
    General Extension Services

    Agricultural Extension Services is an integral part of agricultural activities in Ghana. The municipality currently has seven (7) Agricultural Extension Agents at post and among their routine activities is transferring improved agricultural technologies to farmers.  In the year 2009, a total of (1338) males and (611) females farmers benefited from improved technologies during.
    Some of the Improved Technologies are:
    Crops: Row planting for optimum production, correct use of agro- chemicals, Pest/Disease recognition and control, Control of Post Harvest losses of grains/ legumes and storage prevention and control, Improve crop varieties and Soya Utilization.
    Livestock: Animal nutrition, improved housing for animals, Rabbit & grasscutter production and processing, pig production and Management, Snail farming, Guinea fowl production, Breed improvement techniques, Pest/disease recognition  control and prevention,  Crop Residue treatment with Urea and  the use of the I2 vaccine on local poultry.
    Others: Group cohesion dynamics and savings mobilization, Soil fertility improvement techniques/ management, improved irrigation technology, use of weighing scales, Sensitizing butchers on harmful effects of singeing, Non-traditional agriculture and Vegetable production.
    An extension agent on one of his routine visits to a farmer.
    Veterinary services

    Animal health is an important component of livestock production. This responsibility lies with the veterinary services department in the ministry of food and Agriculture.  The municipality currently has two (2) Veterinary Officers at post and among their routine activities are campaign on vaccination, treatment and vaccination of animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry birds and pets,).
    In the year 2009, a total of 2,850 local birds and 500 exotic birds were vaccinated against Newcastle using the I2 vaccine and Newcastle Orthodox. Also 225 birds were vaccinated against Fowl pox. A total of 1660 small ruminants (858 sheep and 802 goats) were vaccinated against PPR and then (32) dogs and one (1) cat were vaccinated against Rabies.
    Limitations of the Veterinary Service Department in the Municipality:
    • The unit does not have veterinary clinic for treatment
    • The unit does not also have the required resources to carry out routine
    vaccinations. It is therefore prudent for the Municipal Assembly to make budgetary allocation to support this exercise. Other major animal diseases that need vaccination are brucellosis, Newcastle and rinderpest diseases.
    It is recommended that vaccination be treated as a public health issue and must therefore be given the needed attention.
    Farmer groups

    The municipality has 17 existing groups and 14 new groups which are all functional.   These groups includes: six (6) crop production, twenty six (24) animal production and one processing group. The total membership for the 31 groups is 420 which are made up of 321 males and 99 females. The members in the groups complained of not getting access to credit even though they are in groups.
    Farmer Based Organizations (FBOs)
    There are four farmer based organizations currently identified in the municipality. They are;
    1.Abolebu poultry farmers association located at the Teshie Tsuibleo. They consist of 10 males and 2 females.
    2.Teshie vegetable growers association at Demo camp. It’s made up of 20 males.
    3. Faith and believe livestock cooperative at Teshie Lenshie are made up of 9 males and 7 females.
    4. The Teshie pig farmers association at Teshie mangoase is made up of 12 males.
    Key findings relating to Municipal Economy.
    1. 21% of revenue was derived from Assembly’s own resources while the remaining 79% were from external sources. There is therefore a heavy reliance on external support for the various projects and activities embarked upon.
    2. The Assembly performed relatively well in Rates with 42%. This was followed by Business Operating Permits, Fees and Fines and Rent on Assembly Property in that order.
    3. Wide adverse variance observed in contractual works may be due to projects initiated outside Assembly’s budget. It would be expedient for more balance allocation of expenditure to ensure holistic and harmonious development in LEKMA.
    4. Access to credit is a key challenge of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
    5. Bulk breaking points should be developed at the markets to enhance the municipal economy
    6. Fishing being the most important agricultural activity is faced with the following problems.
    • Absence and enforcement of fisheries bye- laws
    • Unapproved methods of fishing eg. Light, pair trawling, use of chemicals at sea, usage of unsuitable fishing gear
    • High cost of fishing inputs eg. Fishing nets, out board motors etc.
    • Long distribution chain for pre mix fuel
    • No social security for fisher folks
    • No insurance cover for fisher folks
    Other agricultural activities such as livestock production and vegetable farming should also be supported. For instance grass cutters, rabbits and mushroom production should be encouraged as alternate livelihood activities.
    Limitations of the Veterinary Service Department in the Municipality include:
    • The unit does not have veterinary clinic for treatment
    • The unit does not also have the required resources to carry out routine vaccinations
    The major agricultural activities in the municipality are: crop farming, livestock and poultry production, fishing and other alternative source of livelihood (grass cutter, rabbit and mushroom production) and Agro processing.

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